Facebook Technologies, LLC (Menlo Park, CA)

One of the embodiments allows a computing system to determine the first orientation of a user in the three-dimensional (3D), space using first sensor data related to a specific time. The system could render one or more first lines in accordance with the first orientation of the viewer , and display the one or more first lines. The system may determine a different orientation of the viewer within the 3D space based on second sensor data associated with the second time after the first. The system may render one or more lines of pixels in accordance with the second orientation of the observer and display the second or more lines of pixels. The second orientation’s second lines of pixels are displayed in conjunction with the first or several first lines.

Computer graphics are typically visual images that are generated by computers. Three-dimensional (3D) computer graphics allow users to see views of 3D objects based on specific angles. Every object in a 3D scene (e.g. the teapot, house, person,etc.) may be described in a 3D modeling space by using primitive geometries. For instance, a cylindrical object can be represented by using a cylindrical tube as well as top and bottom lids with circular shapes. The cylindrical tubes and lids with circular shapes could be represented by the network or mesh of smaller polygons like triangles. Each polygon is stored using the coordinates of its vertices within the modeling space of 3D.

While 3D objects used in computer graphics could be designed in three dimensions, they’re usually shown to viewers via rectangular, two-dimensional (2D) displays including computer or television monitors. Humans expect to see all the world at the same perspective in every moment because of their vision limitations. Humans are conditioned to expect specific parts of a 3D object to be visible , while other parts will be obscured. Thus, for each 3D scene, a computer graphics system might only have to render the portions of the scene visible to the user but not the rest. This helps reduce the amount of work required.

Raycasting is an approach that measures the object’s visibility in the 3D scene. Conventionally, virtual rays uniformly cast by a virtual pin-hole camera through every pixel on a rectangular screen and into the 3D world to determinewhat is visible (e.g. depending on the areas of 3D objects the rays impact). This supposes that a uniform distribution of rays can be achieved in computing the primary visibility of objects using a virtual pinhole camera. But, this assumption is not applicable to rectangular display technologies that have limited viewing fields like computer monitors or phone displays. However, this assumption isn’t true for non-pinhole VR cameras, that more closely resemble optical sensors. The current VR viewing optics (e.g. integrated into an LCD that is mounted on the head) give a non-uniform curving viewing surface that’s more attractive than conventional rectangular displays. Conventional rendering techniques, that were designed and optimized on these assumption, are not computationally efficient and result in subpar rendering. They lack the flexibility required to render scenes using artificial realities.

The examples discussed in this document are related to a primary visibility algorithm which provides real-time performance. Additionally, it includes an array of features well suited to rendering artificial reality , such as virtual reality or AR. Instead of casting uniformly each pixel with rays in order to solve the problem of visibility Certain embodiments utilize the bounding volume hierarchy as well as an entry point culling/frustum level that is two levels high search algorithm to speed up and optimize the traversal ofcoherent primary visibility rays. Particular embodiments make use of an adaptation of multi-sample anti-aliasing for raycasting , which significantly reduces the bandwidth of memory.

Certain embodiments also provide rendering optimizations and flexibilities that let a rendering engine natively to produce different features in graphics and still maintain real-time performance. These graphics features, such as lensdistortion and sub-pixel rendering, very wide field of view foveation stochastic depth-of-field blurs, lensdistortion and lensdistortion may be particularly useful in an artificial reality scenario. These models support animation as well as physically-based shading to enhance the appearance of rendered scenes. Contrary to conventional rasterization pipelines designed for conventional displays (e.g., rectangular televisions or monitors that have uniform grids of pixels) are usually implemented using hardware and require multiple passes as well as post-processing to approximate these features. Moreover, conventional ray tracers, which primarily focus on Monte Carlo path tracing, do not achieve real-time performance on current VR displays (e.g., with1080.times.1200.times.2 resolution and 90 Hz refresh-rate requirements). The embodiments described herein, therefore, is particularly suitable for rendering artificial reality and present a concrete, viable alternative to conventional rasterizationtechniques.

Embodiments of the invention can incorporate or be used together with an artificial reality system. Artificial reality is a form or combination of realities that has been altered before being presented to a user. It may comprise a virtual reality or enhanced reality, a mixed reality, a hybrid reality, or variants of it. Artificial reality content may include fully generated or created content that is paired with captured content (e.g., real-world photographs). Artificial reality content may include audio videos as well as haptic feedback and other media. It can also be shown on a single channel as well as multiple channels. Stereo video is a stereo video that produces a three-dimensional effect for the viewer. Artificial reality is also associated with products, accessories, services or applications in specific embodiments. They could include content created using artificial reality and/or activities carried out in artificial reality. The artificial reality system that provides the artificial reality content may be implemented on a variety of platforms, including the head-mounted display (HMD) that is connected to the host computer system or a standalone HMD, the mobile device, a computing system or any other hardware platform that is capable of providing artificial reality content to one or more viewers.

These embodiments are only examples. The scope of the disclosure isn’t limited by them. One embodiment may include all or some of the elements, features and functions described previously. The attached claims provide examples of embodiments that conform to the invention, including the storage medium, method system, system, and computer program products. In every claim type (e.g. Method may be claimed in a different claim category. system, as well. These claims do not contain references or dependencies. They are selected because of formal reasons. However any subject matter that results from a deliberate remark to prior claims (in particular, multiple dependencies) is eligible for claim in addition, so that any combination of claims as well as their features are revealed and is able to be claimed regardless of the dependencies selected in the claims attached. Subj ects can be claimed for any combination of features mentioned in the attached claims. It can also include any additional combination of features that are described in the claims. Each feature in the claims can be combined or combined with additional features. Furthermore each of the embodiments and features described or illustrated herein can be claimed in a separate claim and/or in any combination with any of the embodiments or features described or depicted herein or any of the features of the attached claims.

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