INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION (Armonk, NY)
Electromigration is the term used to describe the movement of ions in conductors as a result of the transfer of momentum between diffusing metal atoms and conducting electrons. This effect is crucial for applications that require large directcurrent density for example, microelectronics or related structures. Additionally, as the size of the integrated circuits (ICs) decreases the importance of this effect increases.
There are two types of failure in electromigration of via interconnects and wiring structures within dual damascene copper structures: (i) through depletion and (ii) line depletion. Via depletion occurs the case when electrons flow through the wiring line to the via interconnect above. This type of configuration requires that copper diffusion through the copper cap interface above a via interconnect be slowed down. Line depletion is the reverse. It occurs when electrons flow down from the via interconnect down to the wiring line below. This type of wiring demands that the copper diffusion below the via interconnect slow down. When taking these various modes into account, a need for a particular wire could be driven by performance or electromigration, butthe resistance of all of the wiring will be defined by the electromigration requirements of the worst-case electromigration.
The process of depositing the metal material into openings on a surface composed of dielectric material results in openings that are filled with metal. The topography of areas that are recessed is aligned to the openings that are filled with metal. Themethod further includes depositing an alloying material on top of the metal material, including in the recessed areas. Planarizing the metal material and leaving the alloying material in recess areas is an additional part of the procedure. Furthermore, the procedure involves the distribution of the alloying material inside the metal material to form areas that are self-aligned with metal filled openings.
A structure could comprise a plurality via interconnects or wiring designs made of a dielectric substance. The via interconnects and wiring structure are copper lined structures having an unplanar surface covered by a capping layer and self-aligned alloying regions the via interconnects and wiring structures under the capping layer that inhibit electromigration.
In one aspect of the invention an approach includes: determining whether metal lines require resistance to electromigration and assigning a form to the lines of metal that need electromigration resistance; constructing an image of the desired shape; and determining the timing for the chosen shape of the lines made of metal.Click here to view the patent on USPTO website.
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What is a patent?
Granted by the government to protect an invention, patents give the inventor exclusive rights to use, create and sell the invention? society is benefited when a brand innovative technology is introduced to the market. Benefits can be realized in the direct sense, since it allows people to accomplish previously unattainable things, or indirectly, through the economic opportunities (business expansion and job creation) that the innovation offers.
Patent protection is demanded by a variety of pharmaceutical companies and university researchers to aid in their research and development. Patents can be granted to a physical or abstract product or process or an approach or composition of material unique to the area. To be granted patent protection, an invention must be valuable, new, and not apparent to others within the same area.
Patents are a way to honor inventors who have commercially successful inventions. They serve as a motivator for inventors to invent. Small businesses and inventors are certain that they will receive an income from their investment in technology development via patents. They can earn a living from their work.
Patents play essential roles in firms and can be used to:
Protect your innovative products and services.
Your products are more noticeable appealing, valuable, and desirable to customers.
Make your brand stand out from the competition.
Access to business and technical knowledge and information;
Avoid the danger of accidentally using proprietary third-party content, or losing valuable data, original outputs, or any other innovative output.
Patents effectively transform the inventor’s knowledge into a marketable asset, which creates new opportunities for employment creation and expansion of businesses by licensing or joint ventures.
Small businesses that have patent protection are more attractive to investors involved in the commercialization and development of technology.
Patenting may lead to new ideas and new inventions. This information could encourage the development of new ideas and could qualify for protection under patents.
Patents can be used as a deterrent against non-trustworthy third parties who profit from the invention’s success.
The profits from technology patents that are successful and commercially viable could be used to fund the development of technology through research and development (R&D), which will increase the chance of better technology in the near future.
Intellectual ownership of property can be used to convince lenders and investors that there are real opportunities to commercialize your product. One patent that is powerful could provide multiple financing opportunities. Patents and other IP assets are able to be used as collateral or security to finance debt. Investors can also see your patent assets to boost company valuation. Forbes and others have noted that every patent could boost the value of a company by anything from $500,000 to $1 million.
Startups require a well-designed business plan that leverages the IP to show that your product or service is distinctive innovative, superior, or superior. Investors will also be impressed if you have IP rights are secured or are on the verge of becoming secure, and that they support your business strategy.
It is important to keep an invention secret until you file to protect it with patents. Public disclosure of an invention before filing it could often erode its originality and make it ineligible for patent protection. Thus, prior filing disclosures (e.g., for test-marketing investors, test-marketing, or any other business partners) should only be made following the signing of a confidentiality agreement.
There are a variety of patents, and understanding the different types is crucial to protect your invention. Utility patents protect new methods and inventions made by machines. Design patents cover ornamental designs. Utility patents are the best because they shield the owner from copycats and other competition. Utility patents are often granted to improve or alter existing inventions. Utility patents can also be used to improve or alter existing inventions. A process patent could cover the acts or methods of performing a specific act. A chemical composition would include an amalgamation of components.
What is the average length of a patent? Utility patents last 20 years from the earliest date of filing, however their expirations may be extended due to patent office delays such as.
Are you considering the patenting of your idea? Patents are granted only to applicants who are the first to file, which is why you need to file fast. Call PatentPC today to get your patent application filed!
Patent searches are essential when you’re writing the patent application. This will allow you to see other ideas and give you insight into them. You’ll be able to narrow down the nature of your idea. Also, you can learn about the latest developments in the field you’re inventing. You’ll get a better understanding of what your idea should be and be more prepared to submit the patent application.
How to Search for Patents
A patent search is the initial step towards obtaining your patent. You can do a google patent search or do a USPTO search. Once the patent application has been filed, the product that is covered by the patent application could be referred to as patent-pending and you can find the patent application on a public pair. Once the patent office approves the patent application, you will be able to conduct a patent number search to find the patent issued, and your product has been granted patent. Alongside the USPTO search engine, you can use other search engines like espacenet as described below. Patent lawyers or a patent attorney can help you through the procedure. In the US, patents are issued through the US patent and trademark office or the United States patent and trademark office, which also reviews trademark applications.
Interested in finding more similar patents? Here are the steps to follow:
1. Think of terms that describe your invention in relation to its intended composition, use, or purpose.
Write down a short, but precise description of the invention. Avoid using generic terms such as “device”, “process” and “system”. Consider synonyms for the terms you chose initially. Then, take note of important technical terms and keywords.
To help you identify keywords and concepts, use the following questions.
- What is the objective of the invention Is it a utilitarian device or an ornamental design?
- Is the invention a way of making something or performing an action? Does it constitute a product?
- What is the structure of the invention? What is the physical composition?
- What’s the objective of this invention?
- What are technical words and terms that describe the characteristics of an invention? To assist you in finding the right terms, refer to the technical dictionary.
2. These terms will allow you to search for pertinent Cooperative Patent Classifications at Classification Search Tool. If you are unable to locate the appropriate classification to describe your invention, scan through the class Schemas (class schedules) and try again. Consider substituting the words you use for describing your invention, if you do not find any results in the Classification Text Search with synonyms such as the terms you used in the first step.
3. Examine the CPC Classification Definition to verify the accuracy of the CPC classification you’ve found. If the selected classification title has a blue box with an “D” on its left, the link will direct you to the CPC classification definition. CPC classification definitions will aid you in determining the classification’s scope of application so that you can choose the most appropriate. Additionally they can provide some tips for searching and other information that may be useful for further investigation.
4. Retrieve patent documents with the CPC classification from the Patents Full-Text and Image Database. You can review and narrow down the most relevant patent publications by choosing to focus first on abstract and representative drawings.
5. This collection of patent publications is the best to look at for any similarity to your idea. Pay close attention to the specifications and claims. Consult the applicant and patent examiner to obtain additional patents.
6. You can find published patent applications that match the CPC classification you selected in Step 3. It is possible to use the same strategy of searching in Step 4 to narrow your results to the most relevant patent applications by examining the abstract and representative illustrations on every page. After that, you must review every patent application that has been published with care with particular attention paid to the claims and other drawings.
7. Find additional US patent publications using keyword searching in PatFT or AppFT databases, classification search of non-U.S. patents as described below, and searching non-patent patent disclosures in the literature of inventions using internet search engines. Examples:
- Add keywords to your search. Keyword searches may turn up documents that are not well-categorized or have missed classifications during Step 2. For example, US patent examiners often supplement their classification searches with keyword searches. Think about the use of technical engineering terminology rather than everyday words.
- Search for foreign patents using the CPC classification. Then, re-run the search using international patent office search engines such as Espacenet, the European Patent Office’s worldwide patent publication database of over 130 million patent publications. Other national databases include:
- European Patent Office (EPO) provides esp@cenet to access a network of Europe’s patent databases with access to machine translation of European patents.
- Japan Patent Office (JPO) – with access to machine translations of Japanese patents.
- World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) offers PATENTSCOPE with a full-text search of published international patent applications and machine translations for some documents, as well as a list of international patent databases.
- Korean Intellectual Property Rights Information Service (KIPRIS)
- State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) with machine translation of Chinese patents.
- Other International Intellectual Property Offices with online patent databases include Australia, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, India, Israel, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and Taiwan.
- Search non-patent literature. Inventions can be made public in many non-patent publications. It is recommended that you search journals, books, websites, technical catalogs, conference proceedings, and other print and electronic publications.
To review your search, you can hire a registered patent attorney to assist. A preliminary search will help one better prepare to talk about their invention and other related inventions with a professional patent attorney. In addition, the attorney will not spend too much time or money on patenting basics.