Merck Patent GmbH (Darmstadt, DE)
Counterfeiting products are an issue in many industries. It not only impacts the revenue of original product manufacturers, but it could be a risk for the health and well-being of the consumers. Fake products.
The categories of safety-relevant products comprise, in particular, components for automobiles and air-craft components for the construction of buildings , other infrastructure, food, and even medical devices as well as pharmaceuticals.
The industry has created a variety of security measures to stop counterfeiting and address safety concerns. The most common protection measure is to include an additional security feature to an item. It is a feature that is hard to counterfeit. For instance, security threads, embedded magnetic particles, optically-variable inks, holograms and security threads are just a few of the well-known security features that are difficult to replicate by counterfeiters. Certain security features, i.e. can easily be observed or otherwise recognized by the user of the product, many of the security functions are “covert”, i.e. they are hidden and can only be detected by using specific devices, such as sources of UV-light, spectrometers,microscopes or magnetic field detectors, or even more sophisticated forensic equipment. Examples of covert security features are in particular printings with luminescent ink or ink that is only visible in the infrared part of the electromagneticspectrum but not in its visible part, specific material compositions and magnetic pigments.
One group of security features that are used in cryptography is known as “Physical Unclonable Functionals” (PUFs). Sometimes, PUFs could be called “Physically Unclonable Functions”, or “Physical Random Functions”. APUF is a physical entity that is embedded in a physical structure and is simple to analyze, but hard to predict, even for an attacker who has physical access to the PUF. PUFs depend on the uniqueness of their physical structure that typically has a random component which is part of the physical entity , or is specifically introduced into or created within the physical structure during production and that is unpredictable and in control. Therefore, even PUFs made by the identical manufacturing process differ at the very least in their random component, and thus can be different. While in most cases PUFs are concealed features, this is not a limitation and overt PUFs can also be produced.
PUFs are most well-known in connection with their implementation within integrated electronic circuits by the minimal, unavoidable changes of the microstructures that are produced on a chip within given process-related tolerances. They are also being used for deriving cryptographic keys, e.g. in chips used for smartcards and other security-related chips. An example of an explanation and application of such chip-related PUFs is disclosed in the article “Background on Physical UnclonableFunctions (PUFs)”, Virginia Tech, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2011, which is available in the Internet at the hyperlink http://rijndael.ece.vt.edu/uf/background.html.
However, different kinds of PUFs are recognized for instance random distributions of fibers in pa-per, which is used as a substrate to make banknotes, in which the orientation and distribution of fibers is recognized with specific detectors, and then used as a security feature on the banknote. To evaluate the authenticity of a PUF, a challenge-response-based authentication method is employed. The “challenge” is a physical stimulus that is applied to the PUF and the “response” is its response to the stimulus. The microstructure’s unpredictability and uncontrollable nature determines the response. This can be utilized to verify PUF and make it an actual object. A specific challenge and the associated response form a “challenge-response pair” (CRP).
Asymmetric cryptography is also known as “public key cryptography” as well as “public/private cryptography”. It is a well-known method of cryptography that relies on key pairs. Every pair comprises a public keyand private key. While the public keys can be easily distributed and available to anyone, private keys remain secret and are only accessible only to the owner. Asymmetric cryptography enables both (i) authentication, where the public key is used to verify that the holder of the paired private key has originated an information, e.g. a message or stored data containing the information, by digitally signing it using his private key, and (ii) protection ofinformation, e.g. A message or stored data encrypted using the private key paired. Only the owner/holder of the private key can decrypt the message which is encrypted using the public keys of another person.
Recently Blockchain technology has been developed, wherein a blockchain is a public ledger in the form of a distributed database comprising a plurality of data blocks and which maintains an ever-growing database of records, and is protected against revisions and tampering through cryptographic techniques. The virtual Bitcoin currency that is used for transactions with money via the Internet is an exemplary usage of blockchain technology. The Ethereum project is another popular blockchain platform. Blockchain is basically a decentralized protocol that logs transactions between parties. It records transparently any modifications to its distributed database and stores them. It keeps the changes “forever” meaning that they’ll be accessible to users for throughout the existence of the blockchain. In the process of storing data in a blockchain involves digitally signing the data to be stored in a block of the blockchain. In addition, maintaining the blockchain involves a process known as “blockchain mining” that is when so-called “miners” are an integral part of the blockchain infrastructure, confirm and seal every block to ensure that the information contained therein is kept “forever” and the block can no longer be modified.Click here to view the patent on USPTO website.
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What is a patent?
A patent is granted by the government to protect the invention. The patent grants the inventor the exclusive rights to create, utilize and market the invention. Society gains when new technologies are brought to market. The benefits can be in the direct sense, since it can allow people to do previously impossible things. Or indirectly, due to the opportunities for economic growth (business growth and employment) which the invention provides.
Patent protection is sought by many universities and pharmaceutical companies to protect their research and development. A patent can cover an abstract or physical process or product, or even an approach or composition of materials unique to the area. In order to be granted protection under a patent the invention must be innovative, novel, and not obvious to others within the same area.
Patents reward inventors who have commercially viable inventions. They provide a reason for inventors to create. Small companies and inventors can be certain that they will receive the most return from the investment they make in technology development through patents. They could earn a decent income by their work.
Patents are a crucial part of businesses with the ability to:
Protect innovative products and services;
Increase the visibility and value of your product’s presence on the market
Stand out and differentiate yourself and your product from others.
Access to business and technical knowledge and other information;
Avoid using content from third parties or risking losing important information, creative outputs, and other outputs.
Patents transform inventors’ knowledge into a commercially tradeable asset that opens up new possibilities to create jobs and boost business expansion through joint ventures or licensing.
Investors involved in the development and commercialization of technology may find small-scale businesses that have patent protection more appealing.
Patents can lead to the development of fresh ideas and innovative inventions. This information could encourage innovation and may qualify for protection under patents.
Patents can be used to stop untrustworthy third parties from profiting from the invention’s efforts.
Patent-protected technology revenues that are commercially profitable can be used to finance technology-related research and development (R&D) which can increase the chance for better technology in the future.
You can use the intellectual property rights of your company to convince investors and lenders that your product has real commercial value. Sometimes, a single patent could open the door to multiple financing options. Patents can be used along with other IP assets as collateral or security to secure financing. You can also show investors the patents you own to increase the value of your business. Forbes and others have noted that every patent can boost the value of your company by as much as $500,000 to $1 million.
A properly-constructed business plan is crucial for startups. It must be founded on IP and demonstrate what your service or product is distinctive. Investors will be impressed when your IP rights are secure or are on the verge of becoming secure and they endorse your business strategy.
It is essential to keep an invention secret before submitting a patent application. Public disclosure of an invention prior to its filing frequently degrade its originality and make it ineligible for patent protection. Thus, disclosures that are filed prior to filing (e.g. for testing-marketing investors, test-marketing, or any other business partners) should only be made upon signing a confidentiality contract.
There are many kinds of patents, and understanding these is vital to safeguard your invention. Utility patents protect new methods and inventions made by machines. Design patents cover ornamental designs. Utility patents are the most beneficial since they protect the creator from copycats as well as other competitors. They are typically issued to improve or modify existing inventions. Utility patents can also be used to improve or modify existing inventions. A process patent would be a way to describe the actions or methods of performing a specific act. A chemical composition would include the combination of ingredients.
What is the length average of the patent? Patents for utility last for 20 years after the earliest filing dates, but their expirations may be extended due to patent office delays, for example.
Are you interested in patenting your ideas? As patents are only granted for applicants who are first to file and you must make your application quickly. Contact a patent attorney at PatentPC to patent your idea now!
When drafting your patent application it is recommended to conduct a patent search. the search will give you some insight into other people’s ideas. This can help you restrict the extent of your idea. Also, you can learn about the state of the art within your field of invention. You’ll get a better understanding of what your invention ought to be and be more prepared to submit your patent application.
How to Search for Patents
The first step to obtain your patent is to do the patent search. You can do a google patent search or do a USPTO search. After the patent application is submitted, the product that is that is covered by the patent application could be described as patent-pending. you will be able to locate the patent application online on the public pair. After the patent office approves your application, you’ll be able to conduct an examination of the patent number to find the patent issued. Your product is now patent-able. In addition to the USPTO search engine, you may also use other search engines, such as espacenet, as detailed below. A patent lawyer or patent attorney can advise you on the procedure. In the US patents are granted through the US patent and trademark office or the United States patent and trademark office, which also reviews trademark applications.
Are you interested in finding other similar patents? These are the steps:
1. Think of terms that describe your invention in relation to its intended composition, use, or purpose.
Write down a brief detailed description of the invention. Be sure to avoid using terms that are generic such as “device,” “process,” and “system.” Instead, think about synonyms for the terms you initially chose. Next, note important technical terms and keywords.
Use the questions below to help you find key words or concepts.
- What is the objective of this invention? Is it a utilitarian device or an ornamental design?
- Is inventing a method to create something or perform some function? Are you referring to an object?
- What is the nature and purpose of the invention? What is the physical structure of the invention?
- What is the purpose of this invention?
- What are technical terms and phrases that define the nature of an invention? To assist you in finding the correct terms, consult a technical dictionary.
2. These terms will enable you to look for relevant Cooperative Patent Classifications using the Classification Search Tool. If you’re not able to find the right classification to describe your invention, go through the class Schemas (class schedules). Think about substituting the words you use to describe your invention if you don’t receive any results from the Classification Text Search with synonyms such as the terms you used in Step 1.
3. Examine the CPC Classification Definition to verify the validity of the CPC classification you’ve discovered. The hyperlink to the CPC classification definition is given if the chosen classification title has a blue box that includes “D” to the left. CPC classification definitions can help determine the relevant classification’s scope, so you are sure to select the most relevant. The definitions could also contain research tips or other suggestions that can be useful for further research.
4. Find patent documents that have the CPC classification from the Patents Full-Text and Image Database. You can look through and find the relevant patent publications making a focus on abstract and representative drawings.
5. This list of patent publications is the best to look at for any similarity to your invention. Be sure to read the claims and specifications. There are many patents available by consulting the patent examiner as well as the applicant.
6. It is possible to find the patent application that has been published and match the CPC classification you picked in Step 3. You can also use the same search strategy that you used in Step 4 to narrow down your search results to only the most relevant patent applications by looking over the abstracts and representative drawings for every page. Next, examine the patent applications that have been published carefully, paying special attention to the claims as well as other drawings.
7. You can look up additional US patent publications by keyword searches in AppFT or PatFT databases, and also the classification search of patents that are not from the US as described below. Additionally, you can use web search engines to search for non-patent-related patent disclosures in literature about inventions. Here are a few examples:
- Add keywords to your search. Keyword searches may turn up documents that are not well-categorized or have missed classifications during Step 2. For example, US patent examiners often supplement their classification searches with keyword searches. Think about the use of technical engineering terminology rather than everyday words.
- Search for foreign patents using the CPC classification. Then, re-run the search using international patent office search engines such as Espacenet, the European Patent Office’s worldwide patent publication database of over 130 million patent publications. Other national databases include:
- European Patent Office (EPO) provides esp@cenet to access a network of Europe’s patent databases with access to machine translation of European patents.
- Japan Patent Office (JPO) – with access to machine translations of Japanese patents.
- World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) offers PATENTSCOPE with a full-text search of published international patent applications and machine translations for some documents, as well as a list of international patent databases.
- Korean Intellectual Property Rights Information Service (KIPRIS)
- State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) with machine translation of Chinese patents.
- Other International Intellectual Property Offices with online patent databases include Australia, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, India, Israel, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and Taiwan.
- Search non-patent literature. Inventions can be made public in many non-patent publications. It is recommended that you search journals, books, websites, technical catalogs, conference proceedings, and other print and electronic publications.
To review your search, you can hire a registered patent attorney to assist. A preliminary search will help one better prepare to talk about their invention and other related inventions with a professional patent attorney. In addition, the attorney will not spend too much time or money on patenting basics.