International Business Machines Corporation (Armonk, NY)
A central database stores and manages data in one single database (e.g. databases server) in one place. This usually involves a central computer such as a mainframecomputer, server CPU or the desktop central processing unit (CPU). The data stored in a centralized database can be accessed from multiple different points. Multiple users or client workstations can work simultaneously on the centralized database, for example, based on a client/serverconfiguration. A central database is simple to manage, maintain and control, especially for purposes of security because it is a single place to store data. Redundancy in data can be reduced when a database is centralized because there’s only one location to keep all data.
A database that is centralized has numerous disadvantages. A database that is centralized is an example. It has one point of failure. Particularly, if are no fault-tolerance considerations and a hardware issue occurs (for example, a hardware or firmware, or software failure) the entire database data the database will be lost and the work of all users is interrupted. Additionally central databases depend on internet connectivity. The slower connections, the time required to connect to each database is greater. Another issue is the presence of bottlenecks when a central database is experiencing high traffic due to a single site. Additionally, a central database can only provide limited access to data because only one copy the data is stored by the database. Multiple devices cannot access the same piece of data at the same time without creating significant problems or risking the overwriting of existing data. Furthermore, because adatabase storage system has little or no redundancy of data, data that is suddenly lost is extremely difficult to retrieve other than manually retrieving it from backup storage.
Conventionally, a centralized database is limited by low capabilities for searching, insufficient security, and the slowness of transactions. What is required is a solution overcome these significant drawbacks.
Public blockchains don’t scale well It is widely known. The performance of public blockchains does not compare well to conventional transaction systems. There are two key resources that may determine blockchain/hyperledgerperformance: a computing power and a communication bandwidth. Blockchain (BC) Nodes can perform identical or duplicate work on the publicly accessible blockchain. is essentially a waste of computational power. Consensus algorithms run by BC nodes can waste bandwidth. Self-autonomous distributed systems can be compared to a thermodynamics system. Molecular systems are known to spontaneously move into a state of maximum amount of randomness or disorder. Likewise, the blockchain systems tend to move toa least efficient state, without any being controlled. Hyperledgers that are permission-based offer the promise of increased performance via the partitioning process and management–i.e. in essence using some controls. The hyperledger employs job functions to split the work to ensure that no two BC nodes must perform the same task. In particular, the hyperledger has a policy, which allows a minimum number of nodes to perform validation and ordering functions. Partitioning and the policy can help to save power but also reduce the amount of bandwidth used by networks. But, despite some enhancements, the scalability of the hyperledger remains to be a problem. The primary reason for this is a inability to control a mechanism that optimizes system efficiency and performance as needed.
Accordingly, a method/system for efficient control of BC nodes of distributed systems to achieve optimal throughput performance based on feedback controls is sought.
One example includes a processor as well as memory. The processor will be able to connect to an Blockchain network to process transaction propositions through a pluralityofendorsernodes connected to an orderer. It will also get reports from the ordering system to provide information about the performance of the entire group as well as assign rankings to the various nodes and then order the transactions through the multitude according to the ranking assigned to it.
Another embodiment may include the following connection to an blockchain network to process transactions through multiple endorsers nodes that are connected to an orderer receiving reports from the orderer which report the efficiency of the plurality, ranking the plurality the endorsers nodes based on the report, and then ordering transaction proposals to be executed according to the assigned positions by the various endorsers nodes.
A different example embodiment offers a non-transitory computer readable medium consisting of instructions, which when received by a processor trigger the processor to execute one or more of connecting with the blockchain network that is configured to process transaction proposals via an array of endorser nodes connected to an orderer node, receiving reports from the orderer node that reflect what the performance of all endorser nodes, assigning ranking to the plurality of the endorser nodes based on the reports, and directing the transaction plans to be executed by the multitude of endorser nodes in accordance with the assigned rankings.Click here to view the patent on USPTO website.
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What is a patent?
Granted by the government to protect an invention a patent provides the inventor exclusive rights to create, use, sell and promote the invention?society is benefited when a brand new technology is brought into the marketplace. Benefits can be realized in direct terms, as it can allow individuals to achieve previously impossible things. Or indirectly, through the economic opportunities (business expansion and job creation) which the invention provides.
Many pharmaceutical firms and researchers from universities are seeking patent protection for their work and research. A patent can cover a physical or abstract product or process or the method or composition of material that are new to the field. Patent protection is granted to any invention that is valuable or novel and is not already known by others in the same field.
Patents give inventors a reward for commercially profitable inventions. They act as an incentive for inventors to come up with new ideas. Small-scale businesses and inventors can rest sure that they will earn a a good return on their investment in the development of technology. They can earn money from their work.
Patents are a crucial part of firms and can be used to:
Secure your products and services.
Enhance the value, popularity, and appeal of your product on the market
Stand out and differentiate yourself and your product from others.
Access technical and business knowledge and other information;
Beware of the possibility of using proprietary third-party content, or losing your valuable information, innovative outputs, or another creative output.
Patents convert knowledge of the inventor into an asset that can be sold, which creates new opportunities for employment creation through joint ventures and licensing.
Small-scale businesses with patent protection are more appealing to investors in the commercialization and development of technology.
Patenting could lead to the development of innovative ideas and inventions. The information you create may be protected by patents.
Patents are a way to stop untrustworthy third-party companies from earning through the work of inventions.
Patent-protected technology revenue that is commercially viable can be used to finance technological research and development (R&D), which will improve the chances for better technology in the future.
It is possible to use intellectual property ownership to convince investors and lenders that your product is a viable commercial value. One powerful patent may provide multiple financing opportunities. Patents can be used in conjunction with other IP assets as collateral or security to secure financing. Investors can also see your patent assets to boost the value of your business. Forbes and other sources have pointed out that every patent could add between $500,000 and a million dollars in company valuation.
Start-ups need a well-constructed business plan that leverages the IP to demonstrate that your product or service is distinctive and superior or ingenuous. Investors will be impressed if your IP rights are secure or in the process to becoming secure, and that they support your business plan.
It is crucial to protect an invention prior to filing a patent application. Public disclosure of an invention prior to filing could often erode its originality and render it unpatentable. Thus, disclosures that are filed prior to filing (e.g. for test-marketing investors, investors, or for other business partners) must only be done upon signing a confidentiality contract.
There are a variety of patents. Understanding the different types of patents is vital to protect your invention. Utility patents cover new methods and inventions made by machines. Design patents cover ornamental designs. Utility patents are the best since they shield the proprietor from copycats and other competition. Most often they are granted for improvements or modifications to existing inventions. Utility patents also cover enhancements and modifications to existing inventions. For instance, a process patent covers acts or methods of doing a specific act, whereas chemical compositions are the combination of components.
What is the average length of a patent? Utility patents last 20 years from the earliest filing dates, but their expirations may be extended because of delays at the patent office such as.
Do you want to patent your ideas? Patents are granted only to applicants who are the first to file, so you must file quickly. Call PatentPC today to file your patent application approved!
When drafting your patent application it is recommended to conduct a patent search, as it will provide you with an understanding of other people’s thoughts. This can help you restrict the scope of your idea. In addition, you can learn about state of the art in your area of invention. You’ll have a better idea of what your idea should be, and you’ll be better prepared to write your patent application.
How to Search for Patents
The first step to get your patent is to perform an internet search for patents. You can do a google patent search or do a USPTO search. Once the patent application is submitted, the product that is that is covered by the patent application could be referred to as patent-pending and you can locate the patent application on a public pair. Once the patent office approves the patent application, you can do a patent number search to find the issued patent and your product is now patented. Alongside the USPTO search engine, you can also utilize other search engines, such as espacenet as described below. Patent lawyers or a patent attorney can advise you on the process. In the US, patents are issued by the US trademark and patent office or the United States patent and trademark office, which also examines trademark applications.
Are you interested in finding other similar patents? These are the steps to follow:
1. Create a list of terms for your invention in relation to its intended and composition or use.
Write down a short and precise description of the invention. Do not use generic terms such as “device”, “process” or “system”. Instead, look for synonyms to the terms you selected initially. Also, keep track of crucial technical terms, as well as keywords.
Use the questions below to help you identify key words or concepts.
- What is the objective of the invention Is it a utilitarian device or an ornamental design?
- Is the invention a method of creating something or performing a function? Is it an item?
- What is the basis of the invention? What is the physical structure of the invention?
- What’s the point of the invention?
- What are the terms in the technical field and keywords used to define the nature of an invention? To help you find the right terms, refer to the technical dictionary.
2. Use these terms to find relevant Cooperative Patent Classifications at the Classification Text Search Tool. To determine the most suitable classification for your invention, go through the classification’s class Schemes (class schedules). If you don’t see any results from the Classification Text Search, you might want to think about substituting the words that describe your invention using synonyms.
3. Go through the CPC Classification Definition for confirmation of the CPC classification you’ve found. If the chosen classification is a blue box that has a “D” at its left, the link will direct you to the CPC classification definition. CPC classification definitions can help you determine the applicable classification’s scope so that you can choose the most appropriate. Additionally the definitions may include some tips for searching and other information that could be useful for further research.
4. Retrieve patent documents with the CPC classification from the Patents Full-Text and Image Database. You can search and select the most relevant patent publications by noting first the abstract and drawings representative of.
5. Take advantage of this list of most pertinent patent documents to look at each in detail for the similarities to your own invention. Be sure to read the specifications and claims. Contact the applicant as well as the patent examiner for any additional patents.
6. It is possible to find published patent applications that meet the CPC classification you selected in Step 3. It is possible to use the same search strategy as in Step 4. You can narrow your results to the most relevant patent application by examining the abstract and drawings on each page. After that, you must review every patent application that has been published with care and pay particular attention to the claims and other drawings.
7. You can look up additional US patent publications using keyword searching in AppFT or PatFT databases, and also classification searching of patents that are not issued by the United States in the following table. Also, you can utilize web search engines to search for non-patent-related literature disclosures about inventions. Here are some examples:
- Add keywords to your search. Keyword searches may turn up documents that are not well-categorized or have missed classifications during Step 2. For example, US patent examiners often supplement their classification searches with keyword searches. Think about the use of technical engineering terminology rather than everyday words.
- Search for foreign patents using the CPC classification. Then, re-run the search using international patent office search engines such as Espacenet, the European Patent Office’s worldwide patent publication database of over 130 million patent publications. Other national databases include:
- European Patent Office (EPO) provides esp@cenet to access a network of Europe’s patent databases with access to machine translation of European patents.
- Japan Patent Office (JPO) – with access to machine translations of Japanese patents.
- World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) offers PATENTSCOPE with a full-text search of published international patent applications and machine translations for some documents, as well as a list of international patent databases.
- Korean Intellectual Property Rights Information Service (KIPRIS)
- State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) with machine translation of Chinese patents.
- Other International Intellectual Property Offices with online patent databases include Australia, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, India, Israel, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and Taiwan.
- Search non-patent literature. Inventions can be made public in many non-patent publications. It is recommended that you search journals, books, websites, technical catalogs, conference proceedings, and other print and electronic publications.
To review your search, you can hire a registered patent attorney to assist. A preliminary search will help one better prepare to talk about their invention and other related inventions with a professional patent attorney. In addition, the attorney will not spend too much time or money on patenting basics.