Lockheed Martin Corporation (Bethesda, MD)
Nanoparticles can exhibit physical and chemical characteristics that sometimes differ from those found in the bulk material. Copper nanoparticles can have a lower melting point than bulk copper. Copper nanoparticles that have a smaller size range and smaller nanoparticle dimensions than 20 nanometers melt with lower pressures and temperatures than the larger copper nanoparticles as well as bulk copper.
Copper nanoparticles may be of significant interest due, inter alia, to the extensive industrial use of copper in bulk, the production of monodisperse copper nanoparticles is an issue for synthetic synthesis. It is difficult to make copper nanoparticles that have a narrow size range of less than 20 nanometers. Solutions-based chemical reduction techniques have generally produced nanoparticles with unusual shapes, broad size ranges, and/or nanoparticles that are much bigger than 20 nanometers. Many methods of synthesizing copper nanoparticles can’t be scaled up.
There are only a few ways that are scalable to produce monodisperse copper nanoparticles that have small sizes of nanoparticles. One readily scalable procedure for synthesizing copper nanoparticles having nanoparticle sizes belowabout 20 nm, more particularly below about 10 nm, involves heating a copper salt solution, a bidentate diamine (e.g., a N,N’-dialkylethylenediamine), and one or more C6-C18 alkylamines. Copper nanoparticles made by this method are fusion-resistant and have a temperature less than 200.degree. C. The fusion temperature declining with the size of the nanoparticle. Nanoparticles of copper the size described above have also been made by the reduction of a copper sodium in the presence ascorbicacid. Although copper nanoparticles in this size range can be isolated, studied and used, they have a short shelf life. If the copper nanoparticles haven’t been melted after heating they can cause rapid oxidation.
With regard to the preceding, facile use of copper nanoparticles with sizes that are less than about 20 nm would be of substantial benefit in the art. This need is met by the present invention, which has a number of advantages.
In various forms, articles containing a matrix material and many copper nanoparticles within the matrix material are discussed in this document. Copper nanoparticles may be at most partially fused together and are of a size less than 20 nanometers.
In different examples, the compositions of the present disclosure include a plurality of copper nanoparticles that are smaller than about 20 nanometers in size. They also contain the surfactant system that includes a bidentate diamine and one or more C6-C18alkylamines and a matrix material chosen from the group comprising a polymer matrix and a rubber matrix a ceramic matrix, a metal matrix and a glass matrix.
In various embodiments, the methods described in the present disclosure comprise making a number of copper nanoparticles that are less than about 20 nanometers in size mixing the various copper nanoparticles into a matrix material, and applying at leastone of pressure or heat to at most partially bind the plurality of copper nanoparticles together.
In various other examples, methods described in this disclosure comprise creating an article comprising an underlying matrix material and a plurality of copper nanoparticles which have been at least partially fused within the matrix material and putting the object in thermal contact with a heating source. The copper nanoparticles are smaller than 20 nm in size.
In still other various variations, the techniques of the disclosed invention include providing a plurality of copper nanoparticles mixed with a matrix to create a paste, placing the paste between a first and a secondmember, and joining the first member with the second member by at most partially fusing the plurality of copper nanoparticles together. A number of copper nanoparticles measure less than 20 nanometers and contain a surfactant system that contains a bidentate diamine as well as one or more C6?C18 alkylamines and, possibly, other C6-C18 alkylamines.
In order to make it easier for you to understand the details of the disclosure the preceding provides a general overview of the key characteristics. The claims will also outline the additional advantages and features of the disclosure.Click here to view the patent on USPTO website.
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Granted by the government to safeguard an invention, patents grant the inventor exclusive rights to create, use, sell and promote the invention?society benefits when a innovative technology is introduced to the market. The benefits can be in the direct sense, since it allows people to do previously impossible things, or indirectly, due to the opportunities for economic growth (business growth and employment) which the invention provides.
Patent protection is sought out by many pharmaceutical companies and university researchers for their research and development. A patent can cover the physical or abstract nature of a product or process or the method or composition of materials unique to the area. To be granted patent protection the invention has to be beneficial, new, and not obvious to other people in the same area.
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Patenting could lead to the development of innovative ideas and inventions. This information could encourage the development of new ideas and could qualify for protection under patents.
Patents can be used to deter untrustworthy third parties profiting from the invention’s success.
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Start-ups need a well-constructed business plan that leverages the IP to prove that your product or service is unique and superior or ingenuous. Investors will also be impressed if you demonstrate that your IP rights are secure or in the process of becoming secure and that they align with your business plan.
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There are several types of patents, and understanding these is vital to safeguard your invention. Utility patents cover the development of new methods and machines. Design patents cover ornamental designs. Utility patents are the most effective and protect the owner against copies and competitors. Most often the utility patents are issued for alterations or improvements on existing inventions. Utility patents can also be used to cover improvements and changes to existing inventions. A process patent would describe the methods or actions to perform a particular action. However, a chemical composition would include an amalgamation of components.
How long does a patent last? Utility patents last 20 years from the initial filing dates, but their expirations may be extended because of delays in the patent office for instance.
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When you are writing an application for patents it is recommended to conduct a patent search, as it will provide you with some insights into other people’s ideas. This can help you limit the extent of your idea. In addition, you can be aware of the current state of technology in your field of innovation. This will assist you in know the extent of your invention and prepare you to file your patent application.
How to Search for Patents
Patent searches are the first step in obtaining your patent. You can do a google patent search or do a USPTO search. Patent-pending is the term for the product included in the patent application. It is possible to search the public pair to locate the patent application. Once the patent office has approved your application, you’ll be able to conduct the lookup of a patent number and find the patent granted. Your product now has the potential to be patentable. It is also possible to use the USPTO search engine. See below for details. A patent lawyer or attorney can assist you with the process. In the US Patents are issued by the US patent and trademark office or the United States patent and trademark office, which also examines trademark applications.
Are you interested in similar patents? Here are the steps to follow:
1. Brainstorm terms to describe your invention, based on its purpose and composition or use.
Write down a brief, but precise description of the invention. Don’t use generic terms such as “device”, “process,” or “system”. Think about synonyms for the terms you chose initially. Also, keep track of important technical terms and key words.
To help you find terms and keywords, you can use the following questions.
- What is the purpose of the invention? Is it a utilitarian device or an ornamental design?
- Is the invention a way of creating something or carrying out an action? Is it an item?
- What is the composition of the invention? What is the physical composition of the invention?
- What is the purpose of the invention?
- What are the technical terms and keywords used to define the nature of an invention? A technical dictionary can assist you to find the appropriate words.
2. Use these terms to search for relevant Cooperative Patent Classifications on the Classification Text Search Tool. To determine the most suitable classification to your invention, look through the classification’s class Schemes (class schedules). You may want to consider substituting the terms you use for describing your invention, if you fail to get any results from the Classification Text Search with synonyms such as the terms you used in step 1.
3. Review the CPC Classification Definition to verify the relevancy of the CPC classification that you have discovered. The hyperlink to the CPC classification definition is provided when the classification you have selected is a blue square with a “D” to its left. CPC classification definitions can help you determine the applicable classification’s scope so that you can choose the one that is most appropriate. They may also provide search tips or other suggestions that could be helpful for further study.
4. The Patents Full-Text Database and the Image Database allow you to find patent documents that are accompanied by the CPC classification. By focusing on the abstracts and representative drawings, you can narrow down your search for the most relevant patent publications.
5. Use this selection of the most pertinent patent documents to look at each in detail for similarities to your invention. Pay attention to the specification and claims. You may find additional patents by consulting the patent examiner and applicant.
6. Find patent applications published in the public domain using the CPC classification you picked in Step 3 from the Applications Full-Text and Image Database. You can also use the same search strategy that you used in step 4 to limit your search results to just the most relevant patent applications by looking over the abstracts and representative drawings for each page. After that, you must review every patent application that has been published with care with particular attention paid to the claims and other drawings.
7. You can search for additional US patent publications using keywords search in AppFT or PatFT databases, as well as the classification search of patents that are that are not issued by the United States in the following table. Additionally, you can make use of search engines on the internet to find non-patent literature disclosures about inventions. For example:
- Add keywords to your search. Keyword searches may turn up documents that are not well-categorized or have missed classifications during Step 2. For example, US patent examiners often supplement their classification searches with keyword searches. Think about the use of technical engineering terminology rather than everyday words.
- Search for foreign patents using the CPC classification. Then, re-run the search using international patent office search engines such as Espacenet, the European Patent Office’s worldwide patent publication database of over 130 million patent publications. Other national databases include:
- European Patent Office (EPO) provides esp@cenet to access a network of Europe’s patent databases with access to machine translation of European patents.
- Japan Patent Office (JPO) – with access to machine translations of Japanese patents.
- World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) offers PATENTSCOPE with a full-text search of published international patent applications and machine translations for some documents, as well as a list of international patent databases.
- Korean Intellectual Property Rights Information Service (KIPRIS)
- State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) with machine translation of Chinese patents.
- Other International Intellectual Property Offices with online patent databases include Australia, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, India, Israel, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and Taiwan.
- Search non-patent literature. Inventions can be made public in many non-patent publications. It is recommended that you search journals, books, websites, technical catalogs, conference proceedings, and other print and electronic publications.
To review your search, you can hire a registered patent attorney to assist. A preliminary search will help one better prepare to talk about their invention and other related inventions with a professional patent attorney. In addition, the attorney will not spend too much time or money on patenting basics.