Apple Inc. (Cupertino, CA)

Disclosed herein are the synchronous rectifier control methods that can be used in Discontinuous Current Mode (DCM) converters. These techniques may be particularly beneficial when the current form is triangular with an unchanging down-slope. These converters include DCM flyback as well as DCM Buck converters. The control methods proposed by the authors can reduce body diode conduction in the synchronous rectifier and increase timing for turn-off, while eliminating the effect of circuit elements that are parasitic. These techniques could also simplify the control of synchronous rectifiers working in parallel mode. Additionally, these techniques could assist in achieving better performance in variable output voltage converters as well as converters operating with high switching frequencies.

A lot of power conversion software utilizes discontinuous current mode (DCM) switching power converters such as flyback converters or Buck converters. The advantages of these converters include less common mode noise and less turn-on losses.Such converters rely on a “control switch” element as well as an “rectifier” element. The control switch functions to regulate current or voltage and it responds to the load. The rectifier converts an alternating current into direct current. FIG. 1A illustrates an exemplary flyback converter 100. 1A. A exemplary Buck Converter 150 is depicted in FIG. 1B. Both converters employ a rectifier element that is diode. Figure. 100 illustrates the flyback converter 100. 1A, the rectifier is diode D2. In buckconverter 150 of FIG. 1B, the rectifier is diode D1.

The typical rectifier diodes could be characterized by high conduction losses due to the fact that the forward voltage drop may range between 0.5V to 1.2V. In certain situations, it might be preferable to utilize an synchronous rectifier rather than the diode. A synchronous rectifier employs a low on resistance MOSFET as a rectifier. A suitable rectifier control circuit that is synchronous (SR controller) controls the MOSFET to emulate the behavior of a diode but with a very low forward voltage drop. The MOSFET can be turned off during the blocking period. As a result, the parasitic body diode on the MOSFET blocks the reverse voltage. When conduction is forward, the MOSFET can be left on. The low on resistance switches the body diode so that there is a very small conduction losses. All the necessary logic and sensors for this operation are included in the SR controller. In this document are various discontinuous current mode flyback and buck converters with improved rectifier circuits that are synchronous.

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